Keberadaan dan Evolusi Prinsip Common But Differentiated Responsibilities dalam Instrumen Hukum Internasional

Amira Bilqis, Arie Afriansyah

Abstract


Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran terkait perkembangan prinsip CBDR, diikuti dengan elaborasi dua elemen, yaitu common responsibility dan differentiated responsibility serta memberikan penjelasan mengenai implementasi prinsip CBDR dalam beberapa instrumen hukum internasional.Penelitian yang dilakukan dengan metode yuridis normatif, di mana penelitian dilakukan dengan mengkaji taraf sinkronisasi instrumen internasional melalui studi kepustakaan.Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah kualitatif di mana penulis mengelaborasi kedudukan CBDR sebagai prinsip hukum lingkungan internasional melalui analisis implementasinya pada instrumen hukum internasional secara umum. Artikel ini berkesimpulan bahwa eksistensi prinsip CBDR dalam instrumen internasional terkait terdapat dalam tiga periode: awalan pembentukan prinsip, kristalisasi konsep dalam intrumen hukum internasional dan lahirnya aturan khusus sebagai bentuk lanjutan dari konsep CBDR khususnya dalam bidang perubahan iklim.

 

Abstract

This article aims to provide an overview of the development of the CBDR, followed by an elaboration of two elements, the principle of general responsibility and differentiated responsibility as well as providing an explanation of the implementation of CBDR principles in several international legal instruments.The analysis conducted using the normative juridical method. It will examine international instruments through a literature study. The analysismethod used in this research is the qualitative method to convince the reader that CBDR is a principle of international environmental law through an analysis of its implementation on general international legal instruments. This article concludes that the existence of CBDR principles in related international instruments occurs in three periods: the beginning of the formation of principles, the crystalizing of concepts in international legal instruments and the birth of special rules as a continuation of the CBDR concept, especially in the field of climate change.


Keywords


Climate Change; Common but Differentiated Responsibilities; Principles of Environmental Law.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Almer, Christian, and Ralph Winkler. “Analyzing the Effectiveness of International Environmental Policies: The Case of the Kyoto Protocol.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 82 (2017): 125–51.

Baumert, Kevin A., and Nancy Kete. “Introduction: An Architecture for Climate Protection.” In Building on the Kyoto Protocol: Options for Protecting the Climate, edited by J.

Baumert, K., Blanchard, O., Llosa, S. and Perkaus, 33. Washington DC: World Resources Institute, 2002. http://pdf.wri.org/opc_full.pdf.

Bodansky, Daniel. “The Legal Character of the Paris Agreement.” Review of European Community & International Environmental Law 25, No. 2 (2016). https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2735252.

Bruce, J.P., L. Hoesung, and E.F. Haites, eds. Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Buda, Marian. “Common but Differentiated Responsibility-International Environmental Law Principle.” Journal of Law and Public Administration II, No. 4 (2016): 82–85.

Bushey, Douglas, and Sikina Jinnah. “Evolving Responsibility - The Principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibility in the UNFCCC.” Publicist 6, No. 102 (2010).

Castro, Paula. “Common but Differentiated Responsibilities beyond the Nation State: How Is Differential Treatment Addressed in Transnational Climate Governance Initiatives?” Transnational Environmental Law 5, No. 2 (2016): 379–400. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2047102516000224.

CBD, Conference of Parties. “Bonn Guidelines,” n.d. https://www.cbd.int/abs/infokit/revised/web/factsheet-bonn-en.pdf.

Cheng, B. General Principles of Law as Applied by International Courts and Tribunal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

CISDL. “The Principle of Common But Differentiated Responsibilities: Origins and Scope.” The Center for International Sustainable Development Law, 2002. http://cisdl.org/public/docs/news/brief_common.pdf.

Convention on Biological Diversity. “Access and Benefit-Sharing,” n.d. https://www.cbd.int/abs/infokit/revised/print/factsheet-abs-en.pdf.

Cottier, Thomas. “The Principle of Common Concern and Climate Change.” Archiv Des Völkerrechts 52, No. 3 (2014).

Cullet, P. “Differential Treatment in International Law: Towards a New Paradigm of Inter-State Relations.” European Journal of International Law 10, No. 3 (1999): 549–582. https://doi.org/10.1093/ejil/10.3.549.

Duncan, Gareth. “Common but Differentiated Responsibilities: The Implications of Principle Seven and the Duty to Cooperate on the Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity.” Ocean Yearbook 16 (2002): 75–112. http://moenv.gov.jo:2400/En/EnvImpactAssessmentStudies/Documents/biodiversity fourth national report pdf.pdf.

European Capacity Building Initiatives (ECBI). “Pocket Guide to the Paris Agreement.” Accessed June 16, 2019. https://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/G04042.pdf.

Foundation, ClimateWorks. “Project Catalysts: Low Carbon Growth Plans: Advancing Good Practice,” 2009.

Freestone, D. “The Road from Rio: International Environmental Law after the Earth Summit.” Journal of Environmental Law 6, No. 2 (1994).

French, Duncan. “Developing States and International Environmental Law: The Importance of Differentiated Responsibilities.” The International and Comparative Law Quarterly 49, no. 1 (2000): 35–60.

Gardiner, Richard. Treaty Interpretation. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Goodwin, Jean. “The Authority Of The IPCC First Assessment Report And The Manufacture Of Consensus.” Chicago, 2009.

Harris, Paul G. “Defining International Distributive Justice: Environmental Considerations.” International Relations 15, No. 2 (2000).

Harvey, Fiona. “Everything You Need to Know about the Paris Climate Summit and UN Talks.” The Guardian, November 20, 2015. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/jun/02/everything-you-need-to-know-about-the-paris-climate-summit-and-un-talks.

Honkonen, Tuula. The Common But Differentiated Responsibility Principle in Multilateral Environmental Agreements: Regulatory and Policy Aspects. Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2009.

Houghton, J.T, Meira Filho L.g., Callander B.A., Harris N., Kattenberg A., and Maskell K. Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

IPCC. “Global Warming of 1.5°C: An IPCC Special Report on the Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5°C above Pre-Industrial Levels and Related Global Greenhouse Gas Emission Pathways, in the Context of Strengthening the Global Response to the Threat of Climate Change,.” In Press. Vol. 2, 2018.

Jervan, Marte. “The Prohibition of Transboundary Environmental Harm. An Analysis of the Contribution of the International Court of Justice to the Development of the No-Harm Rule.” Pluri Courts Research Paper, 2014.

Kågeson, Per. “Applying the Principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibility to the Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases from International Shipping.” Working Papers in Transport Economics from the Centre for Transport Studies Stockholm. No 2011:5, 2011.

Kasa, S. “Industrial Revolutions and Environmental Problems.” Interdisciplinary Communications, 2009, 70–74. http://www.cas.uio.no/Publications/Seminar/Confluence_Kasa.pdf.

Keck, Alexander, and Patrick Low. “Special and Differential Treatment in the WTO : Why, When and How?” WTO, n.d. http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/reser_e/ersd200403_e.htm.

Lang, W., ed. Sustainable Development and International Law. London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1995.

Mickelson, Karin. “The Stockholm Conference and the Creation of the South North Divide in International Environmental Law Policy.” In International Environmental Law and the Global South, edited by Shawkat Alam, Sumudu Atapattu, Carmen G Gonzalez, and Jona Razzaque, 109–29. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Newfarmers, Richard, ed. Trade, Doha, and Development: A Window into the Issues, Richard Newfarmer. Washington DC: The World Bank, 2006.

Oberthür, Sebastian. “Linkages between the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols.” International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 1, No. 3 (2001): 357–377. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1023%2FA%3A1011535823228.pdf.

Parikh, Jyoti, Kirit Parikh, Subit Gokarn, J.P. Painuly, Bibhas Saha, and Vibhooti Shukla. “Consumption Patterns: The Driving Force of Environmental Stress,” 1991.

Pauw, Pieter, Steffen Bauer, Carmen Richerzhagen, Clara Brandi, and Hanna Schmole. Different Perspectives on Differentiated Responsibilities in International Negotiations. German Development Institute, 2014. http://mitigationpartnership.net/sites/default/files/dp_6.2014._0.pdf.

Pauw, Pieter, Kennedy Mbeva, and Harro van Asselt. “Subtle Differentiation of Countries’ Responsibilities under the Paris Agreement.” Palgrave Communications 5, No. 1 (2019): 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-019-0298-6.

Peel, Jacqueline. “Foreword to the TEL Fifth Anniversary Issue: Re-Evaluating the Principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities in Transnational Climate Change Law.” Transnational Environmental Law 5, No. 2 (2016): 245–54. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2047102516000327.

Rajamani, Lavanya. Differential Treatment in International Environmental Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

———. “The Changing Fortunes of Differential Treatment in the Evolution of International Environmental Law.” International Affairs 88, No. 3 (2012): 605–23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2346.2012.01091.x.

———. “The Principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibility and the Balance of Commitments under the Climate Regime.” Review of European Community and International Environmental Law 9, No. 2 (2000): 120–131. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9388.00243.

Romani, Mattia, and Nicholas Stern. “Delivering Climate Finance : Principles and Practice for Funding the Fund Mattia Romani and Nicholas Stern Policy Paper December 2011 Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and The Environtmen,” December (2011): 1–22.

Sands, Philippe. Principles of International Environmental Law. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Scotford, Eloise. Environmental Principles and the Evolution of Environmental Law. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2017.

Sell, Susan. “North-South Environmental Bargaining: Ozone, Climate Change, and Biodiversity.” Global Governance 2, No. 1 (1996): 97–118.

Shishlov, Igor, Romain Morel, and Valentin Bellassen. “Compliance of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in the First Commitment Period.” Climate Policy 16, No. 6 (2016): 768–782.

Sohn, Louis B. “Stockholm Declaration 1972.” Harvard International Law Journal, 1973.

Speth, James Gustave. “The Global Environmental Agenda: Origins and Prospects.” In Global Environmental Governance, edited by James Gustave Speth and Peter M. Haas. Washington DC: Island Press, 2006.

Steiner, Henry J. “Review of Sharing the World’s Resources by Oscar Schachter.” American Journal of International Law 71, No. 4 (2016).

Stevens, William K. “Earth Summit Finds the Years of Optimism Are a Fading Memory.” The New York Times, 1992.

Stone, Christopher D. “Common but Differentiated Responsibilities in International Law.” The American Journal of International Law 98, No. 2 (2019): 276–301.

UNFCCC. “Signatories of Paris Agreement.” Accessed June 16, 2019. https://unfccc.int/news/175-states-sign-paris-agreement.

———. “What Is the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change?,” 2019. https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-convention/what-is-the-united-nations-framework-convention-on-climate-change.

Vinuales, Jorge E. The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development: A Commentary. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Weiss, Edith Brown. “Common but Differentiated Responsibilities in Perspective.” American Journal of International Law Proceedings, 2002, 366–368.

———. “The Evolution of International Environmental Law.” Japanese Yearbook of International Law 54 (2011): 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199552153.013.0002.

WTO. “GATT and the Goods Council,” n.d. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/gatt_e/gatt_e.htm.

Yamin, Farhana, and Joanna Depledge. The International Climate Change Regime: A Guide to Rules, Institutions and Procedures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25072/jwy.v4i2.379

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 60 times
PDF - 19 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2020 Amira Bilqis, Arie Afriansyah

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Wawasan Yuridika is Indexed on :

Jurnal Wawasan Yuridika (ISSN Online: 2549-0753 |ISSN Print:2549-0664) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License